Endoscopic Advances in Hepatology.


Endoscopy is and remains an indispensable tool in diagnosing and managing liver disease and its complications. Due to the progress in advanced endoscopy, endoscopy has become an alternative route for many surgical, percutaneous, and angiographic interventions, not only as a backup tool when conventional interventions fail but increasingly as a first-line choice. The term endo-hepatology refers to the integration of advanced endoscopy in the practice of hepatology. Endoscopy is key in the diagnosis and management of esophageal and gastric varices, portal hypertensive gastropathy, and gastric antral vascular ectasia. Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) can be used for the evaluation of the liver parenchyma, liver lesions, and surrounding tissues and vessels, including targeted biopsy and complemented with new software functions. Moreover, EUS can guide portal pressure gradient measurement, and assess and help manage complications of portal hypertension. It is crucial that each present-day hepatologist is aware of the (rapidly increasing) full spectrum of diagnostic and therapeutic tools that exist within this field. In this comprehensive review, we would like to discuss the current endo-hepatology spectrum, as well as future directions for endoscopy in hepatology.